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Studies on Madariaga virus (MADV), a potential emerging threat

MADV, an underexplored member of the eastern equine encephalitis virus complex, poses a health threat to humans and equines. In 2019, we isolated MADV from two horses that died of neurological disease in Northeast Brazil. We are currently conducting various studies to better understand the transmission cycle, patogenicity/virulence, and distribution of the virus, as well as assessing whether Texas mosquitoes could transmit the virus if it were introduced into the state.


Region in Brazil where we isolated MADV in 2019 (Fig. published in Gil et al. Pathogens, 2021).

Exploring epidemiological aspects of Zika, dengue and chikungunya viruses within human cohorts

We have been conducting research in Northeast Brazil with human cohorts to study various epidemiological aspects of Zika, dengue, and chikungunya viruses. Our research has involved detecting ongoing outbreaks, exploring the role of sexual transmission in Zika epidemiology, and assessing humoral immunity profiles against arboviruses over time. These studies aim to help us better understand the spatiotemporal variation in arboviral disease epidemiology.


Hotspots of Zika virus and chikungunya virus infections during outbreaks in a region of Northeast Brazil in 2015-2016 (Fig. published in Magalhaes et al. Plos Negl Trop Dis 2017).

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The relevance of sexual transmission of Zika virus was assessed through a retrospective cohort study conducted in households in Northeast Brazil (Magalhaes et al. J Infect Dis, 2021).

Field simulations: mosquito biology and arbovirus transmission

From a mosquito biology standpoint, various scenarios can occur in the field when arboviruses are circulating within a geographic area. For instance, female mosquitoes can ingest different arboviruses from different hosts, as well as antibodies and even medicine taken by humans. In the laboratory, we simulate these scenarios to assess virus transmission outcomes. This data can contribute to our understanding of disease epidemiology and may be used for modeling studies on arboviral disease transmission.

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The biology of mosquito vectors must be considered in the epidemiology and transmission patterns or arboviruses. In our laboratory, we simulate various field scenarios and incorporate mosquito biology features in the experiments to evaluate arbovirus transmission outcomes.


List of publications from 2017-2023. Complete list available at Google Scholar.


Magalhaes T, Portilho MM, Moreira PSS, Marinho ML, Dias WP, Gonçalves NM, Rodrigues OAS, Montes J, Reis L, Jesus DF, Silva TO, Dultra LS, Nery JS, Ribeiro GS. Validation of the use of dried blood spots in a chikungunya virus IgG serological assay. J Immunol Methods (accepted for publication).

DOI: 0.1016/j.jim.2023.113571


Rosenberger KD, Khanh LP, Tobian F, et al. Early diagnostic indicators of dengue versus other febrile illnesses in Asia and Latin America (IDAMS study): a multicentre, prospective, observational study. Lancet Global Health 2023; 11(3):e361-72.

DOI: 10.1016/S2214-109X(22)00514-9

Foy BD, Magalhaes T, Some A, Gray L, Rao S, Sougue E, Jackson CL, Kittleson J, Slater HC, Bousema T, Ollo D, Coulidiaty G, Colt M, Wade M, Richards K, Fabrice Some A, Dabire RK, Parikh S. Repeat Ivermectin Mass Drug Administrations for Malaria Control II: a double-blind, cluster-randomized control trial for integrated control of malaria. Protocol for the RIMDAMAL II Trial. JMIR Research Protocols 2023; 12:1-13.

DOI : 10.2196/41197


Magalhaes T, Morais CNL, Azevedo EAN, Jacques IJAA, Castanha PMS, Cordeiro MT, Braga C, Jaenisch T, Marques ETA, Foy BD. Two-year decay of Zika virus neutralizing antibodies in people living in an endemic region in Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2022; 107(1):186-189.
DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-1279

Cardoso CW, Souza MMS, Teles ACVS, Argibay HD, Reis OB, Pereira FM, Giovanetti M, Magalhaes T, Ribeiro GS. COVID-19 outbreaks among crew members in non-cruise vessels anchoring in Salvador, Brazil, 2021. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2022; 117:1-8.

DOI: 10.1590/0074-02760220114


Gil L*, Magalhaes T*, Santos B, et al. Active Circulation of Madariaga Virus, a Member of the Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Complex, in Northeast Brazil. Pathogens 2021; 10. *Equal contribution

DOI: 10.3390/pathogens10080983

Magalhaes T, Morais CNL, Jacques I, et al. Follow-Up Household Serosurvey in Northeast Brazil for Zika Virus: Sexual Contacts of Index Patients Have the Highest Risk for Seropositivity. J Infect Dis 2021; 223:673-85.

DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiaa563

Loeffler FF, Viana IFT, Fischer N, et al. Identification of a Zika NS2B epitope as a biomarker for severe clinical phenotypes. RSC Med Chem 2021; 12:1525-39.
DOI: 10.1039/d1md00124h

Morales I, Rosenberger KD, Magalhaes T, et al. Diagnostic performance of anti-Zika virus IgM, IgAM and IgG ELISAs during co-circulation of Zika, dengue, and chikungunya viruses in Brazil and Venezuela. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021; 15:e0009336.

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0009336


Magalhaes T, Chalegre KDM, Braga C, Foy BD. The Endless Challenges of Arboviral Diseases in Brazil. Trop Med Infect Dis 2020; 5.

DOI: 10.3390/tropicalmed5020075

Blitvich BJ, Magalhaes T, Laredo-Tiscareno SV, Foy BD. Sexual Transmission of Arboviruses: A Systematic Review. Viruses 2020; 12.

DOI: 10.3390/v12090933

Armstrong PM, Ehrlich HY, Magalhaes T, et al. Successive blood meals enhance virus dissemination within mosquitoes and increase transmission potential. Nat Microbiol 2020; 5:239-47.
DOI: 10.1038/s41564-019-0619-y


Magalhaes T, Bergren NA, Bennett SL, et al. Induction of RNA interference to block Zika virus replication and transmission in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2019; 111:103169.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2019.05.004

Foy BD, Alout H, Seaman JA, et al. Efficacy and risk of harms of repeat ivermectin mass drug administrations for control of malaria (RIMDAMAL): a cluster-randomised trial. The Lancet 2019:10.

DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32321-3


Magalhaes T, Robison A, Young MC, et al. Sequential Infection of Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes with Chikungunya Virus and Zika Virus Enhances Early Zika Virus Transmission. Insects 2018; 9.

DOI: 10.3390/insects9040177


Magalhaes T, Foy BD, Marques ETA, Ebel GD, Weger-Lucarelli J. Mosquito-borne and sexual transmission of Zika virus: Recent developments and future directions. Virus Res 2018; 254:1-9.

DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2017.07.011


Magalhaes T, Braga C, Cordeiro MT, et al. Zika virus displacement by a chikungunya outbreak in Recife, Brazil. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017; 11:e0006055.

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006055

Faria NR, Quick J, Claro IM, et al. Establishment and cryptic transmission of Zika virus in Brazil and the Americas. Nature 2017; 546:406-10.

DOI: 10.1038/nature22401

Chotiwan N, Brewster CD, Magalhaes T, et al. Rapid and specific detection of Asian- and African-lineage Zika viruses. Sci Transl Med 2017; 9.
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aag0538

Bosch I, de Puig H, Hiley M, et al. Rapid antigen tests for dengue virus serotypes and Zika virus in patient serum. Sci Transl Med 2017; 9.
DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aan1589

Kassar TC, Magalhaes T, Junior SJ, et al. Construction and characterization of a recombinant yellow fever virus stably expressing Gaussia luciferase. An Acad Bras Cienc 2017; 89:2119-30.
DOI: 10.1590/0001-3765201720160196

Freire M, Pol-Fachin L, Coelho DF, et al. Mapping Putative B-Cell Zika Virus NS1 Epitopes Provides Molecular Basis for Anti-NS1 Antibody Discrimination between Zika and Dengue Viruses. ACS Omega2017; 2:3913-20.
DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.7b00608

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